So a clash of armies became in-evitable. Sultan Sujah is equally undeserving the crown; for being avowedly a Rafezy – an heretic- he is of course an enemy to Hindoustan. Now Aurangzeb had no use for Murad. His sons were made to petition Aurangzeb that the prince had executed their father. The sensible policy would have been to let the entire army remain intact at Agra and then give the battle to the rebels in a combined manner. Due to this, Dara was deprived of the best trained army which accompanied the Raja. Had it been the real cause, or the cause believed by the contemporaries, Muslims should not have supported Dara, or the Hindus Aurangzeb. Unfortunately Shahjahan heeded this advice and Dara led the army against his brothers. We have a number of letters written by Aurangzeb. However it is Abul Fazl Mamuri, and he too speaks of only 20 ‘commanders’ and not ‘muslim commanders’! But Jai Singh avoided receiving the orders and wasted his time in a fruitless pursuit. Much has been made out on the basis of this reference in the preamble of the agreement between Murad Bakhsh and Aurangzeb to prove the point that the religious issue was involved. 4. Azam Shah declared himself successor to the throne, but was defeated in battle by Bahadur Shah. As one perhaps knows, Monarchy is not an Islamic institution. Khafi Khan suggested that whoever reached the capital city of Agra first would capture the throne. Shahjahan fell ill at Delhi on 6th September 1657. A letter written by Aurangzeb to Jahanara after the battle of Dharmat survives. 1658: A war of succession was on for the Peacock Throne, between Shah Jahan’s four sons. The death of Aurangzeb led the foundation of decline of the mighty Mughal Emperor and it was happen due to prolong war of succession between his three sons- Muazzam, Azam and Kam Baksh. Depiction of the Battle of Samugarh in 1658, which was decisive in the Mughal war of succession between the sons of Shah Jahan while he was unwell. The only accusation with a religious colour is “his actions are always contrary to (the principles) of the country and the people”. Thus the rank of Mir Jumla was enhanced to 7000/7000 along with an inam of Rs. By the time the Mughals established there hold in India, the Muslim world had reconciled itself with the concept of monarchy. Isa Beg, the wakil of Aurangzeb was also imprisoned. This was just to placate the nobility at a time when Shahjahan was still alive. This had far reaching consequences for the subsequent policies of Aurangzeb. This was also a weakening of position at Agra: a strategic mistake and error. He saw the results of this. ( Public domain ) Sibling Rivalry: Shah Jahan’s Sons Drift Apart . The Mughal royal family did not practice primogeniture but rather considered all brothers equal contenders for the throne. He desisted to do anything when confusion reign in the ranks of the enemy. Such examples can be multiplied. Dara guarded all known ferries at Chambal so that Aurangzeb should be prevented from crossing the river. Mir Jumla persuaded him not to do so as it would lead to confusion – as at Samugarh with Dara. Allama Shibli Nomani says that Aurangzeb essentially fought for the faith and not for the throne. …. Login . They agreed that after the victory they would occupy Agra and the two brothers would share the victory. The move against Shahjahan was to be justified and the support of the people was to be won. These contentions of Quraishi and others are challenged by M.Athar Ali. He further wished them to support Dara’s claim to the throne. Qasim Khan also suggested to Jaswant Singh that it was futile to fight against the princes and that they should go back to Agra and seek further orders. On the top rung of the ladder, 23 Iranis held the rank of 5000 and above in 1658-78; and 14 in 1679-1707. Aurangzeb also gave promotions to different sections of the nobility. 2Early Years chapter abstractThis chapter details the first four decades of Aurangzeb's life, including his princely education and far-flung imperial postings under his father, Shah Jahan. The Rajputs, belonging to the different clans, were swayed by considerations of privilege and precedence, and did not render ungrudging obedience to the commands of their leader. When he reached Ajmer, Jaswant Singh did not come forward to help him. Rajputs). Athar Ali further tells us that out of 486 mansabdars in 1658-78, 136, i.e., 27.3 % were Iranis, quite dwarfing the Turanis who numbered 67, i.e., 13.8 or 14 %. Rafi-ud-Darajat (1719-19): Rafi-ud-Daulah (1719): The king-makers, the Sayyid brothers Abdullah and … While previously, wars were fought after the death of the emperor, this war was fought when Shah Jahan was yet alive. This imposed a restriction on the policy of Aurangzeb in dealing with the nobles. Shah Shuja at this juncture again made an attempt to contest the throne. He had also acquired a fine pack of artillery belonging to Mir Jumla and that proved of immense use in the war of succession. The Mughal war of succession took place in 1707, after the death of Padishah (Emperor) Aurangzeb. Dara, being an experienced person, got the wakils (agents) of the princes arrested and imprisoned so that hey could not send news to their masters. Dara made a servant, who resembled the emperor to appear on the jharokha, and took this opportunity to consolidate his own position. The author explains how Dara’s life stimulates curiosity among people, even now. Thus a mere difference of only three. Jaswant Singh had joined the forces of Aurangzeb by this time. After coronation, Jai Singh was given an inam worth 1 crore dams. In the meantime Kam Bakhsh moved to Bijapur where he established his own empire. Why did this confusion arise? When Aurangzeb's father, Shah Jahan, died, he left behind a situation that was to be relatively healthy, but faithful to the usual quarrels of succession, his Mughal sons did not know how to take over. But Aurangzeb sent a nishan to him. Consort - Sabana Begum (daughter of Persian Ruler). On 1 November, Kam Bakhsh captured Pam Naik's (zamindar, the landlord of Wakinkhera) holdings after Naik abandoned his army. It was enough to make known that Shahjahan was alive. The war of succession which took place among the four sons of Shahjahan during his lifetime. Whether the support of the contending princes was divided on communal and sectarian considerations, or whether the supporters of different princes consisted of all sort of people cutting across religious considerations? He still had such renowned military commanders as Rustam Khan Dakkani, Chhatarsal Hada etc. “Every clan of Rajasthan contributed its share to the band of heroes who sacrificed their lives in their master’s service (swami-dharma).”. He also had the best Deccani generals who were accompanying him. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Due to his ill health Shahjahan was constrained to nominate Dara Shukoh as his successor in the presence of the nobles. Francois Bernier, who traveled and chronicled Mughal India during the War of Succession, notes the distaste of both Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb for Christians. Aurangzeb promises that when he would come to the throne, he would follow the steps of his ancestors who are held in esteem and whose practises have cast lustre in the inhabited world. Shah Jahan had several sons, to whom he gave the governorship of a province. 5. Dara was pitted against a person who had experience of fighting the Persians at Qandhar, against the Uzbeks in Balkh, against the powerful states of Golcunda and Bijapur in the Deccan. [11], On 20 December 1708, Kam Bakhsh marched towards Talab-i-Mir Jumla, on the outskirts of Hyderabad, with "three hundred camels, [and] twenty thousand rockets" for war with Shah. Let us consider some other facts. [7] In April 1708, Shah's envoy Malabar Khan came to Kam Bakhsh's court. The sons were also not as well trained as the sons of Shahjahan: the sanctity of the monarch had been compromised. Aurangzeb and Mir Jumla had for some time worked up a plan for the invasion of the kingdom as soon as the long-anticipated death of Muhammad Adil Shah occurred. When Ali Naqi of Gujarat asked him to desist and refused to cooperate, he was murdered by Murad. Mir Jumla and Shaistah Khan were with Aurangzeb; Shahnawaz Khan Safawi was with Dara. The victorious army was defeated and the lost battle was won by Aurangzeb at Samugarh. Aurangzeb thus tried to placated all the powerful sections of the nobility and it was perhaps having in view this consideration that he appointed both Jaswant Singh and Jai Singh to the highest rank of 7000/7000. Incidentally we should remember that before the Battle of Samugarh, the charges of heresy against Dara were not so freely used. Dara fled. T hat Aurangzeb’s orthodoxy and his dedication to his beliefs was personal rather than a matter for political interference is evident in his reactions and responses during the war of succession of 1658, a quadrangular conflict between Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb, and Murad. This was the direct consequence of the War of Succession. Both of them were very important Rajput nobles, who in fact represented the Rajput community. After about 1680, Aurangzeb’s reign underwent a change of both attitude and policy. [nishan means ‘princely order; farman is an order issued by the emperor; technical order issued by a noble was a parwana; while an order issued by a noble under the direction of the emperor is known as a hasb ul hukm]. Another consequence was that Aurangzeb became suspicious of his own sons, and that is why he exercised care and caution in placing the vast resources with his sons. His forces were later engaged in battle by the Shah's army and Kam Bakhsh was killed. Consort - Najib begum (Daughter Of Wali ahd Azam shah). The imperial forces were defeated at Dharmat and as a result of this, the prestige of the two princes enhanced and their morale became very high. Shah Shuja entered into a conspiracy with him and an agreement was reached between the two that before the battle actually starts, in the late hours of the night, around 3 AM Jaswant would attack the army of Aurangzeb. This request was also turned down by Jaswant Singh. His practice of jharokha darshan and appearing in the darbar stopped. And when Shahjahan fell ill, Dara committed a mistake by arresting the wakils of all the princes with the result that there was strong suspicion that Shahjahan had died. Murad on the other hand left Ahmadabad on 25th February. A contrary advice was given by Khalilullah Khan who being hostile to Dara and in favour of Aurangzeb, said that ‘we will defeat Aurangzeb in a pitched battle’. Azam Shah and Bahadur Shah were involved in an armed conflict at Jajau, near Agra (current day Uttar Pradesh, India). He infact cites Manucci and Sadiq Khan for this contention. For Ishtiyaq H. Quraishi also the war of succession was a tussle between the liberal policy of Akbar and the Orthodoxy. There was also the third son, Aurangzeb, who took c… Two hours later Kam Bakhsh's camp was surrounded, and Zulfiqar Khan impatiently attacked him with his "small force". Aurangzeb ordered the feet of the elephant to be chained so that it may not flee. Ultimately Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh also came to support him. Rustam Khan Firozjung Dakkani on the other hand fell upon the forces of Murad and died fighting for Dara. The truth is that such succession wars were very common in the Mughal Empire. Next day the battle started. He made strategic mistakes. Few decades in the 17th Century have seen such hectic campaigns as the first 10 years of Aurangzeb’s reign! It was a hotly contested battle. When the news of Aurangzeb's death spread through the city, the city's monarch, King Sayyid Niyaz Khan surrendered the fort to Baksh without a fight. Shah Shuja proceeded by rapid marches from Bengal. They arrogated to themselves the honour of being the defenders of Islam.”. While the four sons Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Bux fought against each other, the sisters allied themselves … Conclusion: The mighty Mughal Empire began to decline after the death of Aurangzeb. The War of Succession in 1658-59 took place at a time when the Mughal Empire was at its zenith: and naturally that attracted the historians’ attention. The war of succession which took place among the four sons of Shah Jahan had one novelty. According to Athar Ali, the statistics that 24 Hindu chieftains were in support of Dara and 9 in favour of Aurangzeb is historically wrong. But as the natural geographical barriers had been touched during the reign of Shahjahan, further expansion was not possible unless vast military resources were concentrated, that too with serious political effects. It contains accusations against Dara. [2] The ensuing battle led to the death of Azam Shah and his three sons on 20 June 1707. But this supremacy was short-lived. 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